Changsha is the capital city of Hunan Province. It lies along the lower reaches of the Xiang River, a tributary that flows into the Yangzi River. It covers an area of 11.8 thousand square km., with a population of 6 million.
The terrain of the Changsha City is high in the west and low in the east. There are many mountainous areas in the west and in the north, and the Xiang River flows south to northwest. It belongs to monsoon climate of sub-tropical zone with an annual average temperature of 17.5°C, annual average precipitation of 1387 mm, and frost-free period of 280 days. It abounds in agricultural and aquatic resources. There are coal, iron, copper, porcelain clay, manganese and tungsten etc. mineral resources, and Liuyang is the important producing area for Chinese phosphorous ore.
The industries of this city are mainly machine building, food and textile. So far as the cigarette making industry is concerned, it is the important producing area. Liuyang is the biggest fireworks and fire-crackers producing area of China. The agriculture is developed here which abounds in producing rice, tea leaves, oranges, tangerines, rape, rapeseeds, peanut, day lily, live pig and fresh water fish etc. The tea leave output is among the top of the whole country.
As a famous historical and cultural city in China, Changsha features places of interest which have a historical significance. The major scenic spots are the Yuelu Academy, the Han Tombs at Mawangdui, the Zoumalou Bamboo and Wooden Slips and the Research Institute for Hunan Embroidery. As a time-honored academic school perched on the scenic Yuelu Hill, Yuelu Academy was originally built in 976 during the Song Dynasty. It survived through the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties and is considered to be the cradle of Huxiang Culture. (Simply means the culture school in Hunan Province.) It is also considered to be the first government-run university in China.
Besides, there are picturesque Yuelu Mountain and Juzizhou (tangerine Island) etc. scenic spots. Famous specialties of tradition are Xiangxiu (Hunan embroidery), brass or copper wares, tea set, orange and tangerine etc.
The village of Shaoshan, about 130 kilometers south-west of Changsha is the hometown of Chairman Mao Zedong. Today, the village has become a memorial place for Chinese people to remember this extraordinary man. People erected a statue of the Chairman and have preserved the houses he lived as a tourist site. A museum and other memorial spots in the scenic area create a kind of solemn atmosphere. Many Chinese come to pay respect and visit here during the memorial days. It has become one of the new hot tourist destinations in China.
What's more, the city was home to other revolutionary leaders including Liu Shaoqi, Huyaobang and former Chinese prime minister, Zhu Rongji. Therefore, it acts as a good place to learn more about China's recent history.